Mariahilf, Viennas 6th district, runs along one side of one of Vienna's busiest and most vibrant shopping streets, the Mariahilferstrae and possesses a number of outdoor markets in the northern part of the district. Heading south the streets become less crowded and more residential. Mariahilfs once jam-packed warehouses and lavish town houses fell into decline in the post-war period attracting students and other Bohemians but it has experienced a renaissance in recent years; Many of the old buildings have been restored and converted into fashionable apartments, studios, bars and restaurants making it one of Viennas trendiest nightspots. Mariahilfs historical pedigree easily rivals those of other more elegant parts of the city: the composers Josef Haydn and Ludwig van Beethoven both resided here in their later years. Beethoven wrote the Missa Solemnis, the 9th symphony and his only opera, Fidelio during his stay here in 1822-23. A ring of busy roads, the Wienzeile, Lerchenfelderstrae, Ringstrae and Grtel, surround the district, which also flanks the U3 underground line as far as the Westbahnhof train station in neighbouring Rudolfsheim.