Hitler's propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels instigated a nation-wide programme of anti-Jewish violence on 9 November 1938. The pogrom was known as Kristallnacht, also referred to as the "Night of Broken Glass".
Over the following two days the Nazis destroyed a dozen synagogues along with numerous Jewish homes and several thousand Jewish-run shops in Berlin.
At least seven people were killed and some 3,000 Jewish men from Berlin were deported to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp located 35 km north of the capital. The campaign was coordinated in Munich, and marked an escalation of the persecution of Germany's Jews.